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PLS Data and Reports

Browse our research publications about the Public Libraries Survey (PLS) to gain insights about public libraries in the U.S. over the past 15 years, including the PLS annual reports, research briefs, supplementary data tables, and other publications listed below by fiscal year.

We also provide the data files, APIs, and other associated documentation with each annual PLS data release. We hope you’ll make use of them to analyze and interpret the PLS data and to answer your own questions about public libraries in the U.S.

And be sure to check out our online tools to explore the PLS data.

FY 2015 and 2016 PLS

Data collection for FY 2015 PLS ended in August 2016. IMLS is currently preparing the FY 2015 data files and documentation; we will update this page when they are available. The FY 2016 PLS data collection period begins in January 2017 and runs through August 2017, after which IMLS will prepare the data files and documentation for release.

FY 2014 PLS

The 2014 PLS shows libraries continuing to adapt to 21st century needs and a growing population. More than 306 million Americans lived within a public library service area in 2014, compared to 305 million in 2013. Libraries offered more children and young adult programs, with an estimated 5 million more Americans attending library programs compared to the previous year. In addition, the number of downloadable audio, video, and electronic books available to the public grew significantly.

FY 2013 PLS

The 2013 PLS shows libraries are responding to changing 21st century needs. PLS FY 2013 provides aggregated local, state and national information about the nation’s 9,000 public libraries and their 16,500 branches and bookmobiles. Ninety-six percent of the population, or 305 million people, lived within a public library service area in 2013, and Americans made an average of almost four million visits each day to public libraries that year.

FY 2012 PLS

In 2012, Americans made 1.5 billion trips to public libraries in the United States—the equivalent of more than 4.1 million visits each day, indicating there is a high demand for the resources and services of the nation’s approximate 9,000 public libraries. FY 2012 was characterized by stabilization. After postrecession declines in visitation, circulation, revenue and staffing, these measures of public library use and resources remained similar to prior year levels.

FY 2011 PLS

There were 1.53 billion in-person visits to public libraries in FY 2011—equivalent to over 4.2 million visits each day. The FY 2011 PLS also shows how library service is fundamentally changing. Reductions in physical visits to the library are associated with investments in e-materials such as e-books, which may indicate that services are moving online, allowing people to perform library transactions such as checking availability of materials, checking them out and returning them online.

FY 2010 PLS

In 2010, there were 8,951 public libraries in the 50 states and the District of Columbia with 17,078 public library branches and bookmobiles. These public libraries served 297.6 million people throughout the United States, a number that is equivalent to 96.4 percent of the total U.S. population. The FY 2010 PLS shows how libraries are doing more with less—with local government taking on a larger funding role as state support declines.

FY 2009 PLS

FY 2008 PLS

FY 2007 PLS

FY 2006 PLS

FY 2005 PLS and Earlier

Please note that the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) conducted the FY 2005 and earlier surveys and produced the data files and reports.

Fiscal Year Data Files Documentation Reports Data Element Definitions
2005 CSV and SAS Documentation Annual Report Definitions
2004 CSV and SAS Documentation Annual Report Definitions
2003 CSV and SAS Documentation Annual Report Definitions
2002 CSV and SAS Documentation Annual Report  
2001 CSV and SAS Documentation Annual Report  
2000 note CSV and SAS Documentation Annual Report  
1999 CSV and SAS Documentation Annual Report  
1998 CSV and SAS Documentation Annual Report  
1997 CSV and SAS Documentation Annual Report  
1996 CSV and SAS Documentation Annual Report  
1995 CSV and SAS Documentation Annual Report and Research Brief  
1994 CSV and SAS Documentation Annual Report  
1993 CSV and SAS Documentation Annual Report and Special Report  
1992 CSV and SAS Documentation Annual Report  

Note: The electronic codebook and database are available for FY 2000.

Annual reports, but not data files, are available for PLS FY 1991, FY 1990, and FY 1989.

About the Data Files

The data files available on our web site are public-use data files. These files have had some data removed to protect the confidentiality of individually identifiable survey respondents. Public-use data files are publicly available without restriction, and do not require a license. Survey data are coded or aggregated without individually identifiable information. Data that could be directly identified with one individual (salaries and wages for librarians for a library with one librarian, for example) are removed.

A small proportion of the data that has been collected are in restricted-use data files, which contain individually identifiable information, which is confidential and protected by law. For more information on restricted-use data files, please contact us.

About the Documentation Files

The documentation files include information on survey design, imputation, and data suppression; record layouts; and appendices containing the survey questionnaire and data definitions. The record layouts (usually in one or more appendices) provide:

  • Variable names: This is the field name (also called the data element name).
  • Field lengths and start positions: Use these to import data from the ASCII-format file into other software applications. They indicate where each field starts in the record and how long it is.
  • Data types: This is the type of data (numeric, text, date, etc.) in the field.
  • Descriptions: Gives the definition or more detail about the field or variable.